PUPH 2101 –CRN 5035 Section D
Core Lab 1: Photo Practices
12:10 pm - 2:50 pm Monday
6 East 16th St 703
Associate Professor Terry Towery
Toweryt@newschool.edu

Course Description:

The first of the Program’s Core Lab curriculum, this course introduces students to fundamental techniques in photography and related media, focusing primarily on digital processes. The range of techniques covered in the course is reflective of technical practices across the contemporary field. Through demonstrations, readings, and assignments, students learn contemporary methods of photographic production. This hands-on technical course supports the development of creative working methods providing students with a thorough understanding of digital capture, editing, and output with an in-depth look into relevant equipment and software. This lab course runs in tandem with Core Studio 1.

Course Objectives:
This course will give the student a survey of photograper's digital workflow.

The student will become conversant in the major technologies of contemporary digital photography and how those have impacted creativity.

The goal of this course is to familiarize the student with the basic tool set of a personal digital imaging workflow. The course will cover:
Digital camera basics
Camera RAW
Scanning
Understanding the Dynamic Range of Digital Cameras.
Color Temperature vs. Auto White Balance
Seeing Color
File formats
Basic File Management
Color Management, ICC profiles.
Non destructive editing
understanding tools in PhotoShop
Scaling and Sharpen Criteria
Basic Masking techniques
Printing protocols: Media and Viewing conditions
Creative compositing
using photoshop as a creative tool rather than a retouching tool

 

Learning Outcomes:
By the successful completion of this course, students will:

Demonstrate an introductory understanding of fundamental technical processes of digital photography, including capture and file formats

Develop an introductory working knowledge of file management and
raw processing

Demonstrate an introductory working knowledge of production and digital darkroom workflow and processes

Develop an ability to use post-production to edit images for various output methods, including digital chromogenic and inkjet prints

Develop an ability to present and discuss work in critiques and classroom discussions

Demonstrate an understanding of color correction and management

Assessable Tasks :
At the end of the semester students should demonstrate an introductory understanding of fundamental technical processes of digital photography, including capture and file formats

Develop an introductory working knowledge of file management and raw processing

Demonstrate an introductory working knowledge of production and digital darkroom workflow and processes

Develop an ability to use post-production to edit images for various output methods, including digital chromogenic and inkjet prints

Develop an ability to present and discuss work in critiques and classroom discussions

Demonstrate an understanding of color correction and management

 

Materials required for course:
A dedicated Large transportable Hard drive, flash drive or other means of transporting digital image files 
Dedicated flash drives for submitting work to your professor
Film and processing
A variety of high quality inkjet papers 
intellect wit and creativity

Highly Recommended:
manually operated Camera (digital or analog)
prosumer or better digital camera

Recommended reading:
MArtin Evening books
Real World Photoshop
Robert Hirsch's Photographic Possibilities: the Creative use of material and processes,
Real world color management 
The Last Layer: New methods in digital printing for photography, fine art, and mixed media  Bonny Pierce Lhotka

 

Scanning pdfs:

 

http://static.hasselblad.com/2014/12/Flexcolor-Manual-Scanners.pdf

Flexcolor_Scanning_Guide.pdfPreview the documentView in a new window

Flextight_How_To.pdfPreview the documentView in a new window

Hasselblad_How_To_Scan.pdfPreview the documentView in a new window

Final Grade Calculation:

Attendance and Class Participation 15%
5 to 8 weekly/in-class assignments 45%
Color checker assignment
Pigs fly assignment
Magritte's feet
Uelsmann composite
Uelsmann-esque from their own files
Quiz
Oral Presentation 10%
Midterm 15%
Final Project 15%

Total 100%

Grading:  Participation and attentiveness in class make up a portion of your grade.  Students actively involved in class, as well as in discussions and critiques, are highly regarded by the instructor. The interaction with other students will improve your understanding of both influence and community in the making of art.

Assignments must be turned in on time or 1 grade level per week will be subtracted.

Course Links:

Intro to Lightroomhttp://www.lightroomqueen.com/downloads/quickstart/lightroom5-quickstart.pdf

http://tv.adobe.com/show/getting-started-with-adobe-photoshop-lightroom-5/

http://tv.adobe.com/watch/learn-lightroom-5/creating-a-slideshow-in-adobe-photoshop-lightroom-5/

http://www.lynda.com/Bridge-tutorials/Presenting-photos-slideshow/126060/136683-4.html  

Epson_How_To_Print.docx

http://www.digitalcameraworld.com/2012/05/23/what-is-color-temperature-free-photography-cheat-sheet/ (Links to an external site.)

http://www.wildlifeinpixels.net/blog/tag/bit/

http://www.dpbestflow.org/image-editing/parametric-image-editing (Links to an external site.)

https://fstoppers.com/post-production/using-color-checker-chart-2732 (Links to an external site.)

FlexColor software + PSD plugin download: http://www.hasselbladusa.com/service--support/technical-support/software-downloads.aspx (Links to an external site.)

https://vimeo.com/98820700 (Links to an external site.)

This syllabus will be flexible

Week

Topic

Readings and Links

Assignment

1
9/1

Syllabus review: course goals, expectations, materials

Introduction to dSLR : Camera units/ Canon, Sony and Nikon
-basic exposure, in-camera metering, exposure modes
-depth of field

-camera menus

-color setting, color space

-file types; jpg/raw/tif and proprietary raw formats

Storage and memory cards; card readers and formatting CF, SD cards, how to transfer media

Demo .dmgs for safe storage via Disk Utility

Backup drives

What to buy/suggested materials.

Creativity lecture given

 

Activate your Lynda.com account to access. This is free to you as a student. Access this through my.newschool.edu, under libraries.

https://vimeo.com/blog/post/behind-the-glass-part-1-an-introduction-to-lenses

Cameras -
B&H's guide how-choose-digital-camera

Crop factor and sensor size and aperture,focal length 

Mother lode of photo cheat sheets

Bring at least 100 frames in by next class.
ALWAYS SHOOT IN RAW! No jpegs allowed. I want to see what kind of photography you are interested in and these NEW images should reflect your personal interests in photography. There should be variety present.

2
9/8

Review “100 Frames assignment” in lightroom slideshows

Lightroom-
-LRCAT, what this is and why it’s really important
-overview of Lightroom interface
-Library Module; -Importing /viewing files (renaming upon import)
-Develop Module; color adjustments, crop and retouching tools
-organization; Catalog and Collections

Tethered shooting with Lightroom
-tethered shooting; basic color settings; manual white balance, color temp, (Adobe RGB (1998) and ProPhoto RGB),
-file types; jpg, tif, raw (proprietary), dng
-color checker

ISO and how it differs between cameras and sensor sizes, speed vs. quality, resolution, bit-depth, reading histograms, white balance

Demo prime lenses vs zoom lenses, aperture, shutter speed in action

File naming conventions, file organization Batch rename in Bridge & LR

Assignment Export 10 images from ‘Every Waking Moment’, taking into consideration consistency and thoughtful printing.

---- 3 studio shots created using 3 different lighting strategies

---- cell-phone photos of your lighting and tethering set-ups

While this is a group project, you each will have your own images to submit. You will each submit three final photographs shot with three different lighting strategies. You will shoot in the studio using the lighting equipment covered in class. Your partners will act as your assistants in setting up the room and moving the lighting, monitoring the tether feed for exposure/focus, etc. You will help each other as you each produce a series of photos in the studio using tethered capture, hot lights, cold lights, v-flats, reflectors.

All photos must be shot in MANUAL mode, using a light meter.

Take a cell-phone shot of your studio lighting & tethering set-up.

One note- take a lot of pictures and bracket your exposures. You will want to have many images as possible to choose from when editing your work down to three.

Minimum equipment you will need for your shoot:

dslr that tethers

laptop that tethers

light meter

tripod

Worksheet for Capture One tethering.View in a new window

For Lightroom tether- follow the same camera set up steps for in Capture One. Under the FILE menu, select TETHERED CAPTURE, then START TETHERED CAPTURE.

Notes on studio usage:

- reservations can be booked in the AMT Equipment Resource Center (ERC). 2 West 13th, room 401.  I suggest setting the date for your group studio reservation as soon as possible.

- once you make a reservation, be there on time. If you are more than 15 minutes late, your reservation is cancelled. All group members must sign-in in the cage.

- if you cannot make your reservation, you will need to call the night before to cancel (212-229-8923 x4242). No-shows or late cancellations may result in you being banned from using the facilities.

- you will need a cabinet key, but the only items you can use in the cabinet are gloves, extension cords, surge protector and seamless bar, weights.

- you must be out of the studio on time. All things (except the lighting equipment) must be put away correctly. Your lights will remain plugged in, but turned off. At that time- you will ask a Head Tech to come up to do a studio check. Once you have your studio checked- you can put the lights away, lock the cabinets and return all equipment and keys to the cage.

Assignment: Using the hot ights in the studio, produce a variety of prtraits onf at least one of your classmates.

 

Assignment: Using available window light with flats or ONE hotlight with flats, shoot five photographs in the studio using tethered dSLR and Lightroom. Process and print directly from Lightroom. Besuretophotographyour setup using your phone to demonstrate that you are, in fact, tethering, or make screenshots.

Reading for next class http://www.bhphotovideo.com/explora/photography/tips-and-solution/how-tether-your-camera-capture-one-pro

_______

Assignment:

Multiple Hot Lights 1. Photograph a still life or portrait in studio using two or more studio hot lights, Photograph two variants of this setup. Three 11x14 prints and one lighting diagram

3

9/15

Bridge
-overview of Bridge interface
-sorting, searching, filtering
-batch rename
-metadata
-ACR in Bridge (.jpg, .tif)
-processing with Photoshop

Adobe Camera Raw
-intro to raw file editing
-reading histograms
-basic color; white balance, temperature and tint
-exposure
-contrast/ tone
-clarity, vibrance and saturation
-reading histograms
-copy/paste settings, multiple files, batch process
-compare to LR Develop Module

Color management-
-color checker and color synchronizing corrections
-demo colorsync utility
-Introduction to additive and subtractive color as it relates to devices and color management
-review and more in depth of color spaces for different devices.
-monitor calibration

Demo and introduce printing from Lightroom

(at some point, 302/303 walk through, schedule with Barb)

In-Class Assignment Make it Ugly’, choose a fav photograph and using non-destructive editing (layers in this case) transform the image, details TBD in class

 

Printing from Lightroom
http://tv.adobe.com/watch/getting-started-with-adobe-photoshop-lightroom-5/lightroom-5-print-the-perfect-image/

Choose five of your best images so far this term. MAKE IT UGLY use extreme cahnges in ACR or the Lightroom develop module. Then print them using Lightroom's print module.

Print 5 images fromthe last two assignments.

Assignment Choose a scene to photograph using a grey card/color checker: make four + exposures with your camera set to different white balance settings:
Auto
Daylight
Tungsten
Fluorescent White Balance and Resolution assignment: Three images of the same scene, on with auto and one with kelvin and one with tungsten. Compare on screen. Two images of the same scene, one raw and one jpg. Compare on screen.

4

Lightroom
-review Library module: importing, organizing, metadata, folders, catalogs
-review Develop module: color correction, synchronizing parametric edits, retouching tools,

In-Class Assignment: Using a library of demo problem images for correction in class. (Potential checklist of common exposure mistakes)

Assignment: Shoot a minimum of 50 digital exposures, sorted and starred, and edit selected frames.

Discuss and introduce midterm (Work on midterm project: come to class with a min of 50 images, sorted and starred towards midterm to work on)


http://tv.adobe.com/show/getting-started-with-adobe-photoshop-lightroom-5/

http://tv.adobe.com/watch/creative-suite-podcast-photographers/how-to-do-a-complete-portrait-retouch-in-lightroom-5/

Assignment - NULL THIS TERM

due in 2 weeks
Set up a still life 
1. Include a macbeth color checker card, your hand and an egg in your still life.

2. Using only NATURAL light shoot it with:
a.) 35mm film (Slide or neg) or your favorite analog camera
b.) Prosumer digital camera 
c.) Your own digital SLR 
and 
d.) a high end digital camera (the highest quality camera you can borrow from the cage).

Bring PRINTS of EACH these to the session in 2 weeks. Be sure to mark them in a way that you can remember but the viewer can't tell which is which.

See:
http://www.xrite.com/custom_page.aspx?PageID=73

Reading for next class

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ColorChecker

Crop factor and sensor size and aperture,focal length
http://www.photoshopforphotographers.com/CC_2013/Help_guide/PDFs/colormanage.pdf

The midterm for the Fall 2016 section is:

A blurb book made in Lightroom.


SELF DIRECTED
Use this opportunity to explore the kind of photogrpahy you are interested in pursuing in the future
1. Proposal is due next week including visual resources
2. You are to make at least 10 final prints from a consistent body of work. Consider this a kind of look book or small portfolio showing the intended direction you wish to pursue during your time here at Parsons.
3.You must show evidence of your process by showing at least 50 images that were made before the final ten were chosen.
4. You must print the final 10 images the best way possible.

5
9/28

Introduction to Photoshop
-introduce the interface basics; workspaces and comfortable working
-interface toolbar, palettes file saving, file size and formats
-image>adjust versus layer adjustments; layers palette
-tone correction; brightness/contrast, levels, exposure and curves
-color correction; color balance, selective color and curves
-selection tools and nondestructive cropping
-creating contact sheets and pdf presentations

   
6
10/6

Pop-quiz: resolution, bit-depth, gamut, color management, file types and exposure questions

Inkjet printing
Demo monitor calibration
Transmissive vrs reflective color

Different paper types, surfaces to compare how they render color and sharpness paper profiles, soft proofing, test strips and hard proofing

Lightroom:
-Print module; templates, print job, draft, resolution sharpening profiles and intent, -creating contact sheets and pdf presentations

Photoshop:
-color management dialog; color handling, printer profile, rendering intent and black point compensation

In-Class: Share and experiment with at least 2 different paper types/ surfaces- which is best for this series? Why? Make 5 final prints from EWM, due next week.

Proper viewing distance and print resolution

Assignment : midterm due next week

You must attend PhotoExpo Oct 22-24

http://www.jeffcurto.com/classes/1201/1201PDF/ColorManagePSCS6.pdf

http://www.dpbestflow.org/color/color-space-and-color-profiles

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Color_Consortium

 

Understanding color management from Spyder/Datacolor

7

Introduction to Digital-C
-PS and LR workflow
-Fuji paper surfaces, specialty media, colorspace and fonts handling
-Inkjet vs. Digital-C (colorspace and resolution)

Scanning
Scanning basics (flatbed vs. Flextight)
Scanning black and white prints

Flexcolor interface
Process 3F scans save as tiffs

Color and contrast in scanned films
Printing from scans

Discuss printing multiple image assignment as inkjet and Digital C
Discuss sizes for output
Discuss final projects

Assignment: Make 12 3F scans
-six made from color film
-six black and white color separations (so two images)

Assignment: Final Project ideas. Write and propose a project description for a flipbook, lookbook, or catalogue that uses identical lighting and image composition.

Assignment: Shoot a roll each of 120 color negative film and 120 color transparency for next week, bring to class.

 

 
8
10/20

Midterm critique

Midterm

Blurb/Lightroom book

DUE AT BEGINNNING OF CLASS!!!

9
10/27

Pop Quiz: scanning + printing

Photoshop: Various dusting techniques:
-retouching and tools - clone stamp, healing, patch
-history brush with Dust & Scratches filter on a background copy
-dusting/spotting on an empty layer
-content aware


 
10
11/3
Photoshop:
-Review of all PS skills and tools as well scanning issues

 

 
11
11/17

Photoshop:
Masking - Magritte's Feet
-blending modes
-transform, scale and perspective
-smart objects
-filters, sharpening

Project proposals due for a flipbook, lookbook, or catalog that uses identical lighting and image composition

 



 

Make Pigs Fly -
For our next meeting in early December, you are expected to use the phrase "Make Pigs Fly" and interpret that as freely as you want. THere must be at least two images blended together in the final image. I want to see at least two final versions, PRINTED on paper no larger than 13x19. You are to use the masking techniques we discussed in class to accomplish this assignment. In this case you are allowed to utilize imagery found online However, at least one of the images must be your own.
12
11/24 is a holiday
12/1

open day for schedule adjustments

 

 
13


Individual Meetings , review Project Proposals

Individual Meetings , review Project Proposals  
14 Final presentations Final presentations  

15

 

12/15

Final presentations

Your final projects will take the shape of a flip-book, look-book, or catalog. While we can look at these formats in broad terms, it is important to note that consistency across images will be a key outcome for the final project. All work will be edited in a consistent way to bring unity to the work. It is expected that your final output will be of high quality with a minimum of 10 prints.

- PDF of Final Project

- book or prints (exhibition quality)

The final project is worth 15% of your final grade. You will be evaluated based on the overall strength of your concept, and quality of final project outcomes.

I will also be evaluating work based on the following course learning outcomes:

  • an ability to present and discuss work in critiques and classroom discussions

  • an understanding of color correction and management

 

Accommodating Disabilities
Lehman College is committed to providing access to all programs and curricula to all students. Students with disabilities who may need classroom accommodations are encouraged to register with the Office of Student Disability Services. For more information, please contact the Office of Student Disability Services, Shuster Hall, Room 238, phone number, 718-960-8441.

The Academic Center for Excellence (ACE) and the Science Learning Center (SLC) The Academic Center for Excellence (ACE) and the Science Learning Center (SLC) are two of the tutoring centers on campus. The ACE provides appointment-based and drop-in tutoring in the humanities, social sciences, and writing, as well as general writing and academic skills workshops. The SLC provides drop-in tutoring for natural science courses. To obtain more information about the ACE and the SLC, please visit their website at http://www.lehman.edu/issp, or please call the ACE at 718-960-8175, and the SLC at 718-960-7707.

Academic Integrity and Plagiarism Policy

Don't Cheat - don't steal - don't lie

Avoid cliches

All of the assignments must be completed by the date listed on your syllabus, as late work is not accepted in this course.

Additonal statements may be found in student handbook. For more information refer to http://www.lehman.cuny.edu/student-affairs/documents/student-handbook-02.pdf.

Classroom Specific Policies
In Class: Mute phones, no e-mailing, no social media, no surfing the net, No IMing, it is a tobacco free campus. No food or drink in the labs or classroom.

Checking your facebook/social media/email during class time isstrictly prohibited and a valid reason for me to dismiss you from class. This will count as an absence. Everyone around you knows you are not paying attention to the material including myself.

● Responsibility 
Students are responsible for all assignments, even if they are absent.  Late projects/papers, failure to complete the readings assigned for class discussion, and lack of preparedness for in-class discussions and presentations will jeopardize your successful completion of this course. 

● Participation 
Class participation is an essential part of class and includes: contributing meaningfully to class critiques and discussions, keeping up with reading, active participation in group work, and coming to class regularly and on time.  

Include statements important to the instructor such as use of cell phones, lateness, make-up exams, class participation, etc.

Papers: do not plagarize your work. The bulk of your papers must be your own words/thoughts. You may quote source material, but this may not comprise more than 20% of your paper. You must provide footnotes and a bibliography if you reference any outside sources. If I catch you plagarizing, you will automatically fail the entire course.

Delays 
I rely on the MTA to get to work. If the trains arent running I can't get to class. Regardless of school policy. In rare instances, I may be delayed arriving to class.  If I have not arrived by the time class is scheduled to start, you must wait a minimum of thirty minutes for my arrival.  In the event that I will miss class entirely, a sign will be posted at the classroom indicating your assignment for the next class meeting. Alternatively, check your COLLEGE email account for any other information.

Grading Standards
A  [4.0; 96–100%]
Work of exceptional quality, which often goes beyond the stated goals of the course

A- [3.7; 91 –95%]
Work of exceptionally high quality

B+ [3.3; 86–90%]
Work of high quality that indicates substantially higher than average abilities

B  [3.0; 81–85%]
Very good work that satisfies the goals of the course

B- [2.7; 76–80%]
Good work

C+ [2.3; 71–75%]
Above-average work

C  [2.0; 66–70%]
Average work that indicates an understanding of the course material; passable
Satisfactory completion of a course is considered to be a grade of C or higher.

C- [1.7; 61–65%]
Passing work but below good academic standing

D  [1.0; 46–60%]
Below-average work that indicates a student does not fully understand the assignments;
Probation level though passing for credit

F  [0.0; 0–45%]
Failure, no credit

Grades of Incomplete
I do not give an I unless you are hospitalized or some other extreme unusual and extenuating circumstances. This grade is given for MEDICAL reasons. THere is a lot fo pressure on the faculty to NOT give I grades. I will not entertain a grade of I if you simply didnt get your work done. This mark is not given automatically but only upon the student’s request and at the discretion of the instructor. A Request for Incomplete must be accompanied by a medical doctor's note.

 

Other:

You have a job as a student. That job is to come to class, be attentive, ask questions, keep your mind open to new ideas and fulfill assigned projects on time. Doing your job will assist you in being perceived as a serious student.

In an educational forum, it is always best to inform the professor in advance about problems with correct completion of an assigned project. When understood and anticipated, contingencies can often be handled easily.

All of the assignments must be completed by the date listed on your syllabus, as late work is not accepted in this course.

Lastly, learning is synthesis of ideas. Try to use the ideas presented in this class to your best advantage by putting them together with what you already know to produce high quality work. If you have problems, see me.

You are the one who will determine whether or not this course is a success for you. Take your work here seriously and you will learn things, have fun and enhance your GPA.

lighting continued

Using speedlights, create a series of photographs using various lighting techniques: light modifiers, on and off camera set-ups, soft-boxes, DIY modifiers, bounce, gels, snoots,

Due , uploaded to dropbox:

3 final images using 1 speedlight. All three must have a different lighting set-up.

3 final images using 2 speedlights. All three must have a different lighting set-up.

cell-phone shots of your set-ups.  

Henri-Georges Clouzot's Inferno (Links to an external site.)

OPALE "L'incandescent" 2013 (Links to an external site.)

Light modifiers and speedlight references:

https://fstoppers.com/food/finding-perfect-light-homemade-light-modifiers-2763 (Links to an external site.)

http://www.instructables.com/id/Speedlite-%22Snoot%22/ (Links to an external site.)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5v7ejTAIlA (Links to an external site.) (b&h workshop of off-camera flash)

Seminal readings about photography that every photograper should be aware of:

1. Walter Benjamin, “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction”, in “Illuminations” ed., Hannah Arendt

2. Walter Benjamin, “The Author as Producer”, in “Reflections” ed., Hannah Arendt

3. Roland Barthes, “The Rhetoric of the Image”, in “Image Music Text”

4. Roland Barthes, “The Photographic Message”, in “Image Music Text”

5. Roland Barthes, “The Death of the Author” in “Image Music Text”

6. Roland Barthes, “Camera Lucida” Amazon

7. Baudrillard, “Simulacra and Simulation

7. Susan Sontag, “On Photography” Amazon

8. Susan Sontag “Regarding the Pain of Others” Amazon

9. Vilem Flusser, “Towards a Philosophy of Photography” Amazon

10. Michael Fried, “Art and Objecthood” Amazon

11. Michel Foucault, “Of Other Spaces: Heterotopias

12. Martha Rosler, “In, Around, and Afterthoughts (On Documentary Photography)” in “The Contest of Meaning”, ed., Richard Bolton

13. Deborah Bright, “Of Mother Nature and Marlboro Men: An Inquiry Into the Culture Meanings of Landscape Photography”, in “The Contest of Meaning”, ed., Richard Bolton

14. Allan Sekula, “The Body and the Archive” in “The Contest of Meaning”, ed., Richard Bolton (also in October, Winter 1986) Amazon

15. Allan Sekula, “Reading an Archive” from “Blasted Allegories”, ed., Brian Wallis

16. Christopher Phillips, “ The Judgment Seat of Photography” in “The Contest of Meaning”, ed., Richard Bolton Amazon

17. Walter Benjamin, “A Short History of Photography”, in “Classic Essays on Photography”, ed., Alan Trachtenberg

18. Andre Bazin, “The Ontology of the Photographic Image”, in “Classic Essays on Photography”, ed., Alan Trachtenberg

19. Siegfried Kracauer, “Photography” in “Classic Essays on Photography”, ed., Alan Trachtenberg

20. Hubert Damisch, “Five Notes for a Phenomenology of the Photographic Image” in “Classic Essays on Photography”, ed., Alan Trachtenberg Amazon

21. Craig Owens, “Photography En Abyme”, in “Beyond Recognition” Amazon

22. Craig Owens, “The Discourse of Others: Feminism and Postmodernism”, in “Beyond Recognition”

23. Douglas Crimp, “Pictures” October, Volume 8, 1979, also in “Art after Modernism: Rethinking Representation”, ed., Brian Wallis

24. John Szarkowski, “Mirrors and Windows” Amazon

25. Rosalind Krauss, “Notes on the Index: Part 1 and Part 2” in “The Originality of the Avant – Garde and other Modernist Myths” Amazon

26. Laura Mulvey, “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” in “Visual and Other Pleasures”

27. Jerry Uelsmann Post-Visualization